Itchy Skin : Causes, Symptoms, Treatments

Itchy Skin Causes, Symptoms, Treatments

Itchy skin is a common problem among many people across the word. This can get annoying pretty fast as it results in skin irritation and discomfort. Itchy skin might at times not indicate much or at times act as an indication of a serious underlying condition. Causes vary tremendously but in the end, there’s usually a treatment for most conditions causing skin itchiness. To get started on finding a suitable treatment regiment, it is paramount that you first know the condition causing the itchy skin.

Cause Of Itchy Skin

Examples of possible causes of itchy skin are such as:

1. Pregnancy : During pregnancy, itchy skin is a common phenomenon. This is usually experienced especially on the thighs, abdomen, breasts and arms. Moreover, pre-existing itchy skin conditions, like dermatitis, may become worse during pregnancy.

2. Skin conditions and rashes : Most skin conditions and complications cause itching. Conditions like psoriasis, eczema (dermatitis), lice, scabies, chickenpox and hives are good examples in this case. The itching normally affects specific areas and it is accompanied by other symptoms like bumps, red, irritated skin or blisters.

3. Dry skin : Dry skin (xerosis) is usually the cause if you do not see bright, red bumps or other noticeable changes around the itchy area. Dry skin is usually as a result of environmental factors such as washing or bathing too much, long-term use of central heating or air conditioning and hot or cold weather with low humidity.

Combination Skin Cleanser

4. Internal diseases : Internal diseases have for a while been known to cause itchy skin. Illnesses like thyroid problems, iron deficiency anemia, kidney failure, liver disease, malabsorption of wheat (celiac disease), and cancers, like leukemia and lymphoma. The itching is usually full body although the skin usually still looks pretty normal.

5. Irritation and allergic reactions : Itchy skin can also be as a result of the materials or chemicals coming in contact with skin. These are such as soap, Wool, chemicals and other substances which can irritate the skin and cause itching. It could also be as a result of an allergic reaction like poison ivy, food or cosmetics, causing the skin to itch.

6. Nerve disorders : Conditions affecting the nervous system have also been known to cause itching. These are conditions such as diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, pinched nerves and shingles also known as herpes zoster.

7. Drugs : Reactions to medications and drugs like antifungal, antibiotics or narcotic pain medications, can lead to widespread development of rashes and itchiness of the skin.

Itchy Skin Causes, Symptoms, Treatments

Treatment of Itchy Skin

• Taking an oral antihistamine whether pill or liquid.
• Trying over-the-counter anti-itch creams.
• Taking a cool bath with baking soda or oatmeal.
• Staying away from soaps, detergents, and other products containing color dyes and perfumes.
• Avoid scratching as it worsens the itch.
• Using a suitable moisturizer to keep your skin hydrated.

Ingrown Hair: Causes, Treatments, Infections

Ingrown Hair Causes, Treatments, Infections

Ingrown hair is usually due to hair that was cut short close to the skin and it created a sharp tip which could have easily pierced the skin. Ingrown hair is mainly attributed to improper or aggressive shaving techniques, other hair removal techniques like waxing and also friction due to tight clothing. In other cases however ingrown hair has been known to occur naturally where too much dead skin blocks hair follicle openings and causes hair to grow sideways.

Ingrown hairs are not limited to certain groups of people and can affect anyone. They are however more likely to appear in adults and teenagers and also in African-American individuals as their hair tends to be thicker and coarser.

Ingrown Hairs Diagnosis

One of the most common symptoms of ingrown hairs is tenderness and itchiness. There is also the red bumps which form on the skin around the area. These bumps usually appear just a few days after shaving and they get worse as hair grows back. Some individuals also experience painful papular eruption after shaving. This is where the upper skin layer has dilation of small superficial blood vessels. This causes the skin to appear red and flushed. Moreover, pustules may form in those areas with the ingrown hair as a result of common skin bacteria such as Staphylococcus.

Ingrown Hair Causes, Treatments, Infections

Treatment of Ingrown Hairs

In most cases ingrown hairs go on to heal by themselves. However, these hairs may in some instances become a nuisance. At this stage, there are a number of treatments that can be applied. Some of these include:

Laser Hair-removal : This is not only a treatment method but also preventive. Laser treatment helps to permanently reduce the number of hairs. This treatment however works only on dark hairs currently. It is still preferred because it is very fast, efficient, and safe.

Chemical depilatories : Another treatment method is use of chemical depilatories. These work by loosening the hair structure thus blunt tips of shaved hair at the openings of the follicle. These chemical depilatories should however be used every other day instead of daily to minimize chemical irritation on the skin. They can also be used together with Hydrocortisone cream to alleviate the irritation caused.

Topical antibiotics : For severe cases which have even formed pustules and abscesses, you can opt for Topical and oral antibiotics.

Topical creams

Medical removal : Medical removal of the ingrown hair by pulling out the hair or doing small incisions. The best results are however reached when using combination therapy. However, you should consult your doctor first.

Electrolysis : This is also another treatment to consider. This is effective as it permanently remove hairs. This treatment usually targets individual hair follicles and the destruction of hair follicles is permanent. Electrolysis can however tend to be slow and it requires multiple treatments.

Hyperpigmentation

Hyperpigmentation

Hyperpigmentation refers to a condition where dark spots and patches, of light brown or black, appear on the hands, face and other visible body parts when they are exposed to the sun. These spots can be difficult to hide and they vary in shape and size. The main cause of hyperpigmentation is when melanin is overproduced in certain areas of the skin.

Types of Hyperpigmentation

Age spots : These are as a result of sun exposure and therefore appear on body parts that are frequently exposed. They are usually small dark patches on the skin.

Chloasma or Melasma : This affects 90% of women and has been dabbed ‘the mask of pregnancy.’ It normally results from hormonal influences like birth control pills and pregnancy.   Its appearance is usually dark irregular shapes on the arms and face which can be pretty large.

Post-inflammatory Hyperpigmentation : This is in reference to the discoloration left after a skin injury or trauma heals. This is common with acne sufferers.

5 Unusual Causes Of Breakouts 3

Major Causes Of Hyperpigmentation

1- Sun Exposure

The sun triggers the production of melanin. Melanin normally acts as a natural sunscreen for your skin, providing protection from harmful UV rays. However, excessive exposure to sun can lead to hyperpigmentation. Moreover, the sun exposure can exacerbate the dark spots forming freckles.

You can prevent this by wearing protective clothing and using a high SPF sunscreen.

2- Hormonal Influences

This is the main cause of Chloasma or Melasma hyperpigmentation which is common among women. This is because female hormones estrogen and progesterone have been found to stimulate overproduction of melanin once exposed to the sun.

3- Genetics

Having certain genes makes you more prone to hyperpigmentation. People in certain age groups are more prone to hyperpigmentation. This is mostly tied with hormonal production at these various ages.

4- Skin Injuries or Inflammation

This is the main cause of Post-inflammatory HyperpigmentationHyperpigmentation can also be a side effect of certain illnesses or more prevalent in certain jobs and occupations.

Facial Rejuvenation

Treatment of Hyperpigmentation

There are multiple dermatological treatments with anti-pigmentation treatment procedures. Here are some few examples:

Laser Therapy : This treatment involves ‘zapping’ the problem areas with high energy light whose intensity can be controlled. Depending on the intensity, the treatment can either work on the epidermis or surface layer or on the deepest skin layer.

Chemical Peels : This treatment involves the application of an acidic solution on the layers of the ski, be it face, hands or feet. These eventually causes the skin to blister and peel off, leaving you with a new and evenly pigmented skin.

Skin Care Products : There are multiple skin care products that claim to have the power to reduce hyperpigmentation. Some common ingredients in such products include Arbutin, hydroquinone, kojic acid, Vitamin C derivatives, retinoid acid, azelaic acid, and B-resorcinol among others.

How To Get Rid Of Dark Circles

How To Get Rid Of Dark Circles

Dark circles are a common condition experienced by most people. This condition usually involves the appearance of a darkened circle under the eyes. Being such a common occurrence, there are numerous theories explaining their occurrence and appearance, some of which are true and some of which aren’t. According to a dermatologist in New York City, Charlotte Clark, getting a full night sleep may help diminish the appearance of dark circles but not erase them completely. To be able to get rid of them completely, it is first important to consider their origin.

Mask For Smooth Skin

Causes of Dark Circles

Genetics is one of the most common sources. People who have inherited fair and thin skin under the eyes are more susceptible to dark circles. This is because in their case, it is more obvious when blood polls gather under the eyes. Such conditions are usually due to lack of sufficient sleep which results in slower blood circulation. The accumulation of blood causes the fragile capillaries to stretch and even in some cases leak.

Seasonal allergies can be to blame for a lot of people. Allergies trigger the release of histamines by the body which then go on to inflame blood vessels and cause swelling.

Age is another common factor. The human skin loses collagen over time causing it to thin. This causes the veins to show through more prominently with sunbathing being known to speed up this process. This is because it breaks down collagen and mottles the skin color.

It is also important to note the following method of dark circles diagnosis. To know why you have dark circles, you can gently stretch out the skin beneath your eyes. If the area gets darker, then most probably the cause of your dark circle is aging or genetics. However if there is no color change observed, the cause is most probably UV rays or allergies.

Skin Moisturizer Mask

Treatment of Dark Circles

Treatment of dark circle is usually dependent on the causative factor.

1. Dark Circles Due To Vascular Issues. For such cases, a common solution is using more pillows when sleeping to prevent blood from building up under your eyes. Moreover, after waking up, it is advised that you apply a cold compress for 5 minutes. This helps to constrict the blood vessels.

You can apply eye cream on the area to help constrict the vessels. Recommended eye creams should have anti-inflammatory properties and ingredients such as caffeine, green tea or grape seed oil. Your diet can also be used to accompany treatment. An ounce of flavonol-rich dark chocolate daily and foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids like salmon and walnuts may improve blood flow.

2. Dark Circles due to Allergies. This can be treated using over-the-counter antihistamines.

3. Dark Circles Due to Skin Conditions. This require the use of a collagen-building cream like retinol which increase collagen production. Another great ingredient is vitamin C as it helps brighten the skin tone.

Cold Sores

Cold Sores

Cold sores are the small blister like sores which usually appear on cheeks, lips, chins, on the gums, in the nostrils or around the mouth. They are normally itchy, painful and they cause a burning sensation. Caused by the herpes simplex virus, cold sores are actually a pretty common occurrence. Most commonly, cold sores are caused by herpes simplex type 1. There are however those less frequent ones caused by herpes simplex type 2 which results from having oral sex with a partner with genital herpes. Cold sores have no prevention or cure but there are a number of treatment methods to reduce their frequency and duration. Moreover, cold sores are known to clear out naturally in about 7-10 days.

Spread of Cold Sores

The cold sore virus, herpes simplex is highly contagious and can be very easily transmitted from person to person as a result of close contact. Once it enters your body, the virus remains dormant for a while until a trigger activates the virus. These triggers vary from person to person and this determines the number of cold sore outbreaks one may get annually, including their frequency. There are people who carry the virus for years and never get an outbreak while a good number of people have cold sores recurring twice or thrice a year.

Cold Sores 2

Causes of Cold Sores

As mentioned above, cold sores are as a result of the virus, herpes simplex, both type 1 and 2. Type one is spread by close direct contact like kissing, sharing utensils or other personal items like razors and towels. Some known triggers for the inactive cold sore virus include:

• Menstruation
• Injury to the affected area
• Intense sunlight
• Deep sadness or upset
• Mental stress

Treatment for Cold Sores

Cold sores usually clear up naturally in a week or two. However, you can also opt for ointments and antiviral medications as they can reduce the outbreak duration and minimize the irritation, discomfort and pain. Here are some additional types of medication which can be employed.

Antivirals

These are over-the-counter cold sore antiviral creams. They can reduce the duration of a recurrent cold sore when used properly. The most important active ingredients in these creams are acyclovir and penciclovir. For best results, these creams should be applied in the very early stages of the formation of the sore. The recommended application regiment is five times daily for 4-5 days.

Special care should be taken for patients with weakened immune systems for example HIV positive patients and those undergoing chemotherapy. Antiviral tablets are the best treatment options in such cases.

Additional treatments for cold sores

There are additional creams that can be used that do not contain antivirals. For very dry, itchy or painful cold sores, this may be helpful in alleviate some of the irritation. Examples of these include Blistex, Bonjela,or Cymex. These creams are to be gently dabbed onto the sores.

Cellulite Causes and Treatments

Cellulite Causes and Treatments

Cellulite is not a foreign term for the most of women. Actually according to scientists, an estimated 90% of women are affected by cellulite at a point in their lives. This is not to say men are never affected but simply that females are more affected since they have specific types of fat and connective tissues.

Cellulite can best be described as a condition where the skin appears to have areas with underlying fat deposits. This makes the area look dimpled and lumpy in appearanceCellulite is most common in areas such as thighs and buttocks, and it usually starts occurring after puberty.

What Causes Cellulite?

There are multiple causes of cellulite. These normally include:

1- Genetics : Specific genes are needed for cellulite development. Moreover, genes may predispose a person to certain characteristics associated with cellulite like race, gender, reduced metabolism and circulatory insufficiency.

2- Hormones : Hormones like insulin, estrogen, thyroid hormones and prolactin have been found to be part of the cellulite formation process. This means that increased amounts of these hormones in the body may result in increased appearance of cellulite.

3- Lifestyle : Cellulite has been found to be more prevalent in people who:

  • Smoke
  • Fail to exercise
  • Stand or sit in a single position for long amounts of time.

4- Diet : Cellulite is more like to appear in people who eat too much of carbohydrates, fat, fiber or salt.

5- Clothing : Wearing tight underwear that has elastic across the buttocks may result in formation of cellulite as they limit blood flow in the area.

Essential Oils Blend For Cellulite

Cellulite Treatment

There are multiple scientific methods of removing cellulite. However, there is no single scientifically proven cellulite treatment. Different treatments work for different people and conditions. Here are some of the treatment methods employed around the world.

  1. Mechanical/ Physical Methods

Some mechanical methods of eliminating cellulite include:

  • Heat therapy
  • Radial waves therapy
  • Magnetic therapy
  • Radio frequency therapy
  • Pneumatic massages
  • Ultrasound
  • Endermologie
  • Electrical simulation
  1. Medicinal Treatment

Another method is use of drugs which act on the fatty tissues. These drugs can either be applies, given orally or injected. Cellulite creams are the most commonly used treatment for cellulite. Other example of drugs that are used include:

  • Indian chestnut
  • Pentoxifylline
  • Alpha-antagonists
  • Beta-agonists and adrenaline
  • Ginkgo biloba
  • Amino acids
  • Rutin
  • Methylxanthines (caffeine and theobromine)
  1. Diet Change

Another method is employing diet change where you eat a healthier, more balanced diet coupled with exercising. This is effective since it reduces the fat content in the cells and as a result, reduces the appearance of cellulite on the skin.

Herbs For Skin Firming

Cellulite Prevention

Since prevention is better than cure, what are some of the ways to prevent cellulite formation?

  1. Eating health low fat foods like fruits, vegetables and fiber.
  2. Exercising regularly
  3. Maintaining a healthy weight
  4. Reducing your stress levels
  5. Wearing loosely fitting undergarments such as thongs for better blood flow.

Aging Skin Over 40

Aging Skin Over 40

Skin care is a cause of concern for most women from a very young age. This only gets worse with age. Women worry about their skin type, wrinkling and even which products to use for their skin. The best part is that with the great scientific advances in skincare, women can look as vibrant in their 40s as they did in their 30s and 20s. In most cases, especially for aging skin over 40, you have to trial and error with anti-aging products until you find one that is just perfect for you. This can be harmful to your skin over time and even have adverse future effects.

Dry Skin At 40

This is a very common problem for women over 40. Scientifically, this can be explained as follows: progesterone and estrogen production in the body slows down as we age. As a result, les sebum or oil is produced by your skin. Sebum is normally responsible for keeping your skin looking and feeling supple and soft.

Moreover, the skin renewal process slows down slightly causing your complexion to appear less radiant and dull.

Signs Of Aging Skin

When you are in your 40s, here are some signs to look out for on your skin.
• Larger pores
• Loss of skin firmness
Wrinkles
• Hyperpigmentation
• More visible dullness on your skin.

Taking Care Of Your Skin

Taking that your skin at 40 requires more specialized care, there are a number of tips and tricks for skin care. These range from homecare remedies to which products are best suited for skin at this age. Here are some examples to keep you looking radiant and amazing.

Skin Cleansing

Moisturizing

As earlier mentioned, dry skin is one of the most prevalent conditions at this age. Therefore, you can:
1. Apply a moisturizer with a broad spectrum SPF of up to 15 very morning.
2. Use a serum for moisturization or spot treatment. You can apply this twice a day, in the morning before using your moisturizer and in the evening after washing your face. You can also look out for hydrating ingredients like Niacinamide or N-Acetyl Glucosamine which exfoliates your skin while also minimizing the visibility of the hyperpigmentation and also glycerin which hydrates your skin by drawing moisture from the air into your skin.

Cleansing

You also need to cleanse away impurities often. Choose a cleanser that effectively exfoliates the skin’s surface to remove the dead skin and unblock your pores. This will help your skin look and feel fresh.

Facial Redness Treatment

Eye Creams

Eye creams are perfect for reducing the visibility of hollowing around the eyes and the appearance of fine lines. You can dab the cream on using your ring finger, from the inner corner then to the outer corner. Tap lightly to give an immediate circulation boost around the area applied.

Note that nighttime is the most important as it is the time your skin starts to repair itself. Therefore, moisturizing with peptides at night is of utmost importance. This not only speeds up the skin cell turnover but also reduces the appearance of fine lines leaving your skin looking moist and bright!

From Discontent To Confident: Dealing With Face Imperfections

From Discontent To Confident Dealing With Face Imperfections

Let’s face it: how many times did you remove the tag on some of your Facebook photos because you thought the angle was not that flattering? How many times did you analyze your skin, face lines, and wrinkles in front of a mirror, feeling so far from beautiful? Science-backed data says women are more likely to feel inadequate, self-critical, and self-conscious in comparison to men. Self-acceptance is hard, but the trick is to become aware of what you can change for the better, in order to feel comfortable in your skin. Take a deep breath: there’s a solution to everything.

Taking care of blemishes and acne

Small discolorations or hyperpigmentation are pretty common and harmless, but aesthetically they don’t look very nice. You can easily cover them up with makeup: the key is finding the right products that provide a maximum coverage base. That means choosing the products with the right shade, structure, and ingredients. You can also schedule an appointment with a dermatologist and discuss the possibility of a chemical peel. Acne are a more serious skin condition that is almost always a psychological burden and very hard to handle. Sure, you can use makeup to hide them, but you might want to consult a dermatologist and see what you can do in the long run, so you take care of the cause instead of handling the symptoms.

From Discontent To Confident Dealing With Face Imperfections

Faking a smaller nose

Most women turn to the art of contouring to slim down their noses. Apply a concealer that’s two shades lighter than your skin tone to both sides of your nose. Cover up the area that goes under your eyes (to the outer corner) all the way to the border of your cheekbones, and make sure you reach the skin from your nostrils all the way to the bridge of your nose. Add two darker shaded lines along the bridge of your nose to narrow it. Blend it all in and touch up if necessary. If you want a more permanent solution, consider getting a nose job. When deciding to do so, you should turn to reputable and trustworthy experts. In Australia, the most experienced surgeons in rhinoplasty Sydney will introduce you to all the details of the procedure and give you the best possible natural-looking results, so that you feel good about yourself without makeup, too. Always ask for recommendations: satisfied clients are the key to choosing the right doctor.

Big or wide forehead

Although they say a high forehead is a sign of intelligence, you may be self-conscious about it. Luckily, you can use makeup and optical illusions to narrow it and make it look smaller. A forehead usually appears big because of the high hairlines or low eyebrows, so an easy solution would be a camouflage: bring back the bangs! If you’re not really down to such a radical change, you can change your part and make it a side one, so that you draw attention away from the forehead. Make your hairstyle eye-catching (think waves and volume) so that you create a diversion, or enhance some other part of your face. And of course, use the power of makeup to make it look smaller.

From Discontent To Confident Dealing With Face Imperfections

Pesky enlarged pores

With pores, it’s all about prevention: obviously, you cannot get rid of them, but you can reduce their size and improve how they look with proper care. Don’t use products that clog your pores (e.g. bar soaps): turn to gentle cleansers instead. Always remove your makeup before bed and go easy on the exfoliators. Use products that are rich in niacinamide: it can help you reach a more smooth and tightened look! Establish a good beauty routine to get the most out of your look.

With smart cosmetic choices and makeup, you can easily cover up or completely get rid of face imperfections, and what’s more important – ensure a healthy looking skin in the future.

Body Changes During Pregnancy

Body Changes During Pregnancy

Pregnancy can come with quite a number of changes some may be good and some may not be so accommodating. Here are some of the ways you can deal with some of these changes.

Heartburn

This is caused by pregnancy-induced hormonal changes which, when added to the growing tummy, can increase chances of washing up of stomach acid into the throat. You can ease heartburn by eating smaller, more frequent meals, avoiding greasy food, caffeine and smoking, eating and chewing food slowly, waiting at least 30 minutes before lying down after eating and trying antacids like calcium carbonate which is a calcium supplement as well.

Morning Sickness

This normally goes away after the first trimester but some women have it right until delivery of the baby. Relieve morning sickness by eating smaller, frequent meals and drinking lesser quantities of liquids a few times a day never just after or before a meal, having small, healthy snacks prior to getting out of bed in the morning then resting for 15 minutes, stay away from smells or foods that may trigger it, eating cold instead of hot food to remove some of the smell, smelling ginger or lemons to ease the stomach, taking your prenatal vitamin together with food to avoid stomach upset, and asking about Diclectin from your doctor which is a prescribed anti-nausea drug for pregnant women.

Skin Care in PregnancyFatigue

This is not new given that your body is doing quite a large amount of work. The best solution would be to rest as much as you need to, even if it will mean changing your schedule and asking for assistance with house chores.

Repeated Urination

This will mostly be in the 1st trimester because of human chorionic gonadotrophin pregnancy hormone. It can recur again in the 3rd trimester. Solutions would include avoiding caffeine and liquids in the evening and before bed, whenever you feel the need, go to the bathroom and lean forward when urinating to aid in the better emptying of the bladder.

Constipation

Food progresses more slowly via the body during pregnancy to allow for better absorption of nutrients not to mention constipation can also be caused by Iron supplements. To remain regular you’ll need to eat foods with high fiber, drink lots of fluids, and remain active and whenever you feel the need, go to the bathroom urgently.

Stretch Marks Removal

Itchy Tummy and Stretch Marks

Reduce the chances of getting stretch marks by attempting to add no more than 35 pounds or 16kg for a majority of women. Lotion can be applied to moisturize the skin thus avoiding an itchy belly. Stretch marks might disappear after the birth of the baby.

Sore Back

The increasing size of the uterus, which is a deviating center of gravity and relaxing ligaments can result in back pain for lots of pregnant women, particularly in the third trimester. Relieve back pain by wearing a shoe with a low heel, lifting with the legs and not the back, rolling onto your side prior then pushing yourself with your hands when getting up, selecting chairs with ideal lumbar support and putting a small pillow behind the small of the back when sitting.

Top 5 Foods for Detox Drinks

Top 5 Foods for Detox Drinks

One of the best ways to improve skin health is to, eat the right foods, and while it may sound a bit overrated, trust us on this, it is not! Healthy eating does have a huge impact on your skin health, which is why, with the recent popularity of detox diets, a lot of people have been opting for it not merely to lose weight but also to boost skin health.

Starting your day with a detox drink is a super idea, and if you’re a bit confused about how to go around it all, here’s a quickie! Whip up a quick smoothie/drink using any of these foods and you’re all set!

Turmeric

Turmeric is one of the most powerful detoxifying agents, and so much so, that even its topical application has several benefits for the skin.

Why Your Detox Program Might Not Be Working 3

Carrot

Carrots are a rich source of fiber, which helps add bulk to the stools and cleans your digestive tract effectively- a great natural way to detoxify the body. Plus, it also packs in several other nutrients as an added bonus.

Watermelon

Watermelon is probably the richest food source of water. This summer fruit helps rehydrate your body, give it a good dose of important nutrients, and cleanses and nourishes the body from within, which shows up externally as that wonderful glow on your skin.

Why Your Detox Program Might Not Be Working 4

Cucumber

Cucumber is another powerful food that’s a great source of water, and one of the best health benefits of cucumber juice is its ability to boost skin health by improving gut health. In addition, it also helps tackle chronic inflammation, arthritis and other similar joint related conditions.

Berries

Berries are packed with natural antioxidants that help improve skin health and overall health by fighting free radicals and supplying nutrients to the body. Adding more of these to your foods (smoothies and drinks) is one of the best ways to detoxify the body and boost skin health too!